Economic and Social Impact of Demonetization in India

The prime-minister Mr Modi told the nation ’no more cash’,
he made all the money disappear, in a flash.
They had looted, they had plundered,
they had torn the country asunder,
and all the corrupt politicians ended up in the trash.

On the 9th of November 2016, Mr. Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India announced a series of measures combating corruption and black money in India. In one swift move, Mr. Modi removed the two largest bills in circulation amounting resulting in decrease of 86% or INR 13.62 trillion (USD 197 billion) of the total value of INR 15.84 trillion (USD 230 billion) .

Black money broadly means unaccounted or undisclosed income and assets not reported for tax purposes, without reference to its origin (whether legal or illegal), and 'black economy' to denote the sum total of incomes/assets as well as activities that are not accounted for. While in developed countries in North America and Europe black money is generated primarily through illegal activities,  in the developing countries in Asia and Africa, generation of black money is from all conceivable sources - corruption and siphoning of public resources, trade-based black money due to non- reporting of incomes or profits and inflation of expenses, in addition to a host of criminal activities. 

The rationale behind demonetization

  1. Financial transactions for transfer of assets are conducted partly in cash outside the purview of the legal system. For example, when buying a property for INR 1M, the transaction might be registered for INR 500,000 on which taxes are paid while the other INR 500,000 paid in cash, is outside the purview of the legal system.
  2. Local businesses generate black money by suppressing receipts and inflating expenditure. Businesses inflate expenses through fake or inflated invoices. Goods and services are invoiced multiple times. Corporations practice transfer mispricing by under invoicing their exports or over invoicing their imports.
  3. This wealth is used to subvert democracy by paying cash to voters to elect a certain political party to power. Once in power, the party recoups their investment at the expense of economic development. The two major national parties claim to have incomes of merely Rs 500 crore and Rs 200 crore. But this isn't "even a fraction" of their expenses, when they spend between INR 100 billion and INR 150 billion annually on election expenses. 
  4. The bureaucracy is complicit in corruption including bribery and theft by those holding public office - such as by grant of business, bribes to alter land use or to regularize unauthorized construction, leakages from government social spending programmes, speed money to circumvent or fast-track procedures, black marketing of price controlled services. Reducing the amount of cash in circulation, limits moneys that can be paid as a bribes.
  5. To eliminate counterfeit currency
  6. Limit benami (proxy) transactions. Transactions are made by proxies on behalf of another person by merely lending their name while control vests with the person who actually makes the purchase and is the beneficial owner.

Impact on society

All this comes at a cost of decline in GDP estimated at two percentage points for up to two quarters due to reduction in consumption brought upon by a shortage of cash. This affects the lower classes disproportionately, these are the ones without savings and other reserves to fall back on. While the opposition has been moderate so far, the longer the hardship continues, the lesser the people will tolerate the suffering. 

These steps have been taken in the move towards cashless economy. A cashless economy with an audit trail  and increased transparency will directly result in reduction of corruption, elimination black markets, accountability  and better governance.  A cashless society will enable sharing India's economic growth with the poor by ensuring that benefits from governmental programs flow to the recipients directly bypassing the bureaucrats and eliminating leakage. There is likely to be an increase in government spending programs over the next couple of years before the next general elections in Q2, 2019.  

The number of Indians with bank accounts has surged to 1.17 billion with 347 million savings bank accounts added since 2013. The next big challenge is to get the rural people to actively use their bank accounts 40% of which are dormant. The government might use the moneys collected by the demonetization to inject cash directly into the accounts of the poor. An injection of INR 10,000 into 500M accounts would result in an expenditure of INR 5 trillion which is still below the amount demonetized.

Impact on investments and capital

Mobile payments like PayTM and online commerce site like Flipkart and Amazon will be big beneficiaries of this move. Expect to see additional investment in the Fintech and E-Commerce. Wealth will be hoarded in non-monetary assets like gold and decentralized virtual currencies like bitcoins which exist outside the purview of governments. 

This is one of the defining moments in India’s economic development. This will be looked upon as the time when the country broke free of the shackles of corruption holding it back and boldly went where none had gone before. 

2016 - Observations from a trip to Japan

Visited Japan after seven long years, here are my observations from the trip.

Japan is a very child friendly. We took our four year old everywhere and had no problems whatsoever. The Japanese are very patient when it comes to helping gaijin. When I made a restaurant reservation over the phone, the lady at the other end was very patient.  

There were more tourists from other asian countries from my previous visits, especially in Kyoto. I was able to identify people from China, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Korea. Some of the tourists were dressed up in traditional kimonos and yukatas. There even are  specialized services that cater to these tourists.

Here are some tourists from China, posing for pictures dressed in traditional japanese clothing.

Here are some tourists from China, posing for pictures dressed in traditional japanese clothing.


The Shinkansen

The Japan Rail Pass, a.k.a. the JR Pass is an excellent value. The cost was repaid in 3 trips, we made 9 trips on the Shinkansen on 5 different days on a 7 day pass. We would have paid more than double otherwise. This freed us from worrying about the schedules and costs, we made an extra trip to Kyoto which would have cost us $500 if we had to buy tickets.  It is very easy to book tickets on the high speed trains on an ad-hoc basis. We were able to get on the trains, getting tickets just 10 minutes in advance in some cases. 

The Shinkansen make 1000 km rounds trips (500 km each way) possible on a daily basis. These trains average an incredible 200 kms an hour or more. We travelled from Tokyo to Kyoto (513 ks, 2 hours and 40 minutes on the Hikari Shinkansen, the Nozomi with fewer stops, but not usable on JR pass takes 25 fewer minutes). Tokyo to Sendai (350 km) takes 90 minutes on the Hayabusa or the Komachi Shinkansen.

The trains are punctual to the minute. When a train leaves at 09.04 AM it leaves at 09.04.00, better be there by 09.03 if you want to get on. 


There are few options for breakfast. The day we landed in Tokyo, we had breakfast at “French Kitchen” in The Grand Hyatt, Roppongi. This incidentally was the most expensive meal on the entire trip.

We spotted this restaurant in Roppongi, where men were charged more.


I ate a lot of yakitori.

We carried Ekiben when on the Shinkansen.

The cost of food outside Tokyo is significantly cheaper. This sashimi platter in Sendai for set us back by 2000 yen (USD 20).

No trip to Japan is complete without ramen ..

.. or a giant bowl of udon ..

.. or soba.

Lunch for four: soba, tempura, a bowl of rice and pork was less than 2000 yen at Omiya, Saitama (40 kms from Central Tokyo). 

Lunch for four: soba, tempura, a bowl of rice and pork was less than 2000 yen at Omiya, Saitama (40 kms from Central Tokyo). 


Trash, recycling and plastic bags

There are no trash cans on streets, people carry trash home with them. In public places like train stations, where there are trash cans, there are 3 boxes, one each for cans/glass bottles, PET (plastic) bottles and other burnable (non-recyclable) items. 


In the basement of our AirBnB apartment which was a multi-story unit, this was even more elaborate with separate containers for PET (plastic) bottles, glass bottles, cans, plastics and packaging materials, paper and packaging, and hazardous items. There is a word for the separation of rubbish when recycling “bunbetsu".

For a society which is so environmentally conscious, plastic bags are still in use everywhere. When food shopping at different shops in the basement of a department store, I ended up with 3 different plastic bags when one would have sufficed.

In restrooms, after washing your hands with water and soap and dry them using air blown dryers. There was no paper to wipe my hands with. 

Amazon Echo and the Rise of the Talking Droids

After using the Amazon Echo for the past few months it is impossible to ignore the advancement towards ambient intelligence,  where computers are listening, sensing all the time and respond to the presence of humans. The Echo inexorably moves us closer towards interfacing with computers, like we do with other humans. But with Echo’s current limited capabilities, there are also significant challenges to overcome before this becomes reality.


The Echo keeps me company in the kitchen when I cook and eat. In addition to playing music, I use it to order from Amazon, listen to audio books, set kitchen timers and add items to my grocery list.

In the short time with Echo, I have been able come to see the enormous potential, that Echo is more than a voice-enabled device for buying Amazon products. It is a computing platform which can be extended through ‘skills’. Skills are voice commands that enhance functionality like summoning an Uber or ordering pizza. These skills are are built by third party application developers, like apps on the mobile devices.

Improved Sensing

As the Echo evolves with better natural language processing and sensory capabilities, it will provide exponentially more services. It will be able to see, hear and detect motion either itself or by interfacing with external sensors. It will be able distinguish me from my family members through voice recognition. If a camera was present, it would recognize me visually and identify my gestures to draw additional context around my speech.

An omni-directional motion sensor would enable the lights to be turned on or off automatically when I enter or leave the room. The camera, microphone and motion sensors could be used to enhance in-home security, generating notifications when detecting a stranger.

Voice Commerce

Enabling the Echo to use voice recognition along with visual identification to securely identify me will enabling voice commerce. I can securely bank, pay bills, transfer money to family and friends, order food, book tickets and hotels or perform any transaction that was carried over the telephone in the past. All this can be performed without explicitly logging in, my command for the transaction automatically authenticates me.

Expanding the Reach

A device with a natural language interface would make the internet accessible to a group of users who would otherwise not be online due to technological challenges. For example these devices could be used by seniors, visually impaired users and illiterate or semi-literate people. They could use it to communicate with family, friends and doctors, perform secure online commerce and access emergency services. This would also be a perfect device to learn a foreign language.


But for all the promise shown by the Echo, there are some challenges that need to be overcome before we interface with computers through voice.


Echo has been successful as it does a rather small set of things very well, the interface has been deliberately kept simple by being directive based and non-conversational. Every question has to be prefixed by ‘Alexa’ and the Echo does not remember state between questions or context around them. For example, I would like to follow the question “Alexa, where is ‘Star Trek Beyond’ playing?” with “Get me 2 tickets for 6.00 PM tonight”, but this is not currently possible. The Echo is not able to use the information about the movie from the first question in the second question. As another example, if a camera is present, It would enable Echo to determine if I is talking to it using directionality or even sensing if I’m the only person in the room. I could point to a light and say, “turn it on” without having to explicitly explain to Alexa “it” is the main light in the bedroom .

Additionally, unlike a mobile phone, this is a shared device, where user experience has to be personalized. The device has to be able to switch contexts when talking to different members of my family.

Marketplace and Application Discovery

The most useful device is the one with the widest range of applications. Developers are drawn to a large customer base, cool technologies, ease of development and platforms where they can monetize their applications. Currently the Echo is still in the ‘cool gadget’ category without a compelling application.

A marketplace (a store) has to provide an efficient way to discover new skills and services. A store may have to be built that interacts with a user through a voice interface, building one without visual context is an interesting, challenging problem.

Privacy and Ethics

As a user, I’m concerned that the Echo can hear, see and store my information that may be used for later contextual reference. It is a challenge to store and use this data without compromising my privacy.

I am looking forward to the day when the Echo has evolved past these challenges. On that day, I will be watching my favorite episode of Star Trek when an incoming phone call from my accountant is redirected by Echo to voicemail, alerting me only when I finish watching the episode.

Speeding up the Internet

The internet is a aggregation of multiple interconnected terrestrial, submarine and radio networks. 

Tier 1 networks which are like global freeways, able to deliver to destinations across multiple continents. Multiple tier 1 networks exchange traffic without payments through peering agreements based on reciprocity. Tier 2/3 networks cover a smaller geographical area and get global access by making transit payments tier 1 networks. These networks form the backbone of the internet.  

The last mile is the part of the network that connects connects people's homes and businesses into the larger internet. The last mile is typically part of the ISP’s network. The middle mile is the segment linking the ISP’s core network to the local, last mile networks.

When comparing the internet to a tree,  the tier 1 and 2 networks are the trunk, the middle mile the branches, connecting a very large number of “last mile" leaves. These last mile links are the most numerous and most expensive part of the system.  This is illustrated by the chart below.

The internet as an inverted tree

The internet as an inverted tree

In each the next sections we look into a major issue affecting latency and ways to improve performance.

Outdated protocols

The core internet protocols and routing mechanisms have not changed significantly in the last 40 years. TCP was built for reliability and to avoid congestion and served those purposes wonderfully well but is starting to show its age. Major issues include

  1. TCP is a round trip protocol and the only way to reduce latency is to reduce round trips.
  2. High overhead to acknowledge every window of data packets sent. This particularly affects streaming video where the distance between server and client constrains download speeds.
  3. Larger networks and greater distances increase Round Trip Time (RTT), packet loss and decrease bandwidth. 
  4. It is not very efficient when handling large payloads like streaming video which in the US accounted for over 70% of internet traffic in late 2015 and is expected to grow to 80% by 2019.  

The chart below illustrates the inverse relationship between RTT and bandwidth. There is an exponential decrease in throughput. This has been derived from this report published by Akamai.

Increase in latency decreases throughput exponentially

Increase in latency decreases throughput exponentially

There are a number of optimizations to mitigate these problems. These include

  1. Using pools of persistent connections to eliminate setup and teardown overhead.
  2. Compressing content to reduce the number of TCP roundtrips.
  3. Sizing TCP window based on real-time network latency. Under good conditions, an entire payload can be sent by setting a large initial window, eliminating the wait for an acknowledgement. Larger windows can result in increased throughput over longer distances.
  4. Intelligent retransmission after packet loss by leveraging network latency information, instead of relying on the standard TCP timeout and retransmission protocols. This could mean shorter and aggressive retransmission timeouts under good network conditions. 
  5. QUIC, a replacement for TCP built over UDP and HTTP2 include some of these optimizations from ground up.


Congestion happens at many different points on the Internet including peering points, middle and last miles.

Peering points are the interconnections where different networks exchange traffic. Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is used to exchange routing information between different networks. This older protocol has a number of limitations affecting its ability to keep up with the increase in routes and traffic. Peering points can be deliberately used to throttle traffic and charge for increase in transit capacity as in the case of Netflix vs Comcast (and Verizon).

The middle mile connects the last mile to the greater internet. Last mile which is typically part of the ISP’s network, is the network segment connecting homes and businesses. These last mile links are the most numerous and most expensive part of the system. Goldman Sachs estimated it would cost Google $140 billion to build out a nationwide network or $1000/home on average.

The large capital investment limits competition and creates an imperfect market dominated by few players. Almost a third of US households have no choice for broadband internet service. There is no incentive for these corporations to improve the service due to lack of competition. In locations where Google Fiber has entered the market, other providers have duplicated Google FIber’s price and levels of service

Minimizing long-haul content and computing

Distributing content and computing to the edge presents a unique set of challenges, especially for mobile devices.

  1. Mobile devices are likely to switch between cellular and wi-fi networks, resulting in disconnections.
  2. Mobile applications are personalized and interact through APIs (not static HTML web pages accessed through computer browsers) which cannot be cached as efficiently by CDNs.
  3. Streaming content especially video has to be optimized for different devices and resolutions. The downloadable stream is a function of both the device resolution and the bandwidth availability based on real time network conditions. 

These issues can be addressed by bringing content and computing is as close to the users as possible.

Content delivery networks are effective in reducing latency and increasing throughput by taking content close to the users. Ideally content servers are located within each users ISP and geography. This minimizes the reliance on inter-network and long-distance communications especially through the middle-mile bottleneck of the Internet. Better end-user experiences over cellular networks can be enabled by distributing content and delivery directly inside Mobile Operators core networks.

When computing is moved to the edge, data goes along with it. Data distributed to the edges has to be managed carefully to prevent concurrent modifications. Solutions have to be create to merge data, resolve conflicts automatically or keep source data at source in escrow and update when the computing is complete. 


Latency over the internet is fundamentally limited by the speed of light, aging infrastructure (networks and protocols), lack of competition and increase in streaming video traffic. These problems can be addressed by moving content and computing closer to the edge, building smarter applications using newer protocols and increased competition leading to investments in the last mile internet.  

Food as a Service

I recently subscribed to Gobble, a food delivery service after listening to this a16z podcast. Gobble along with other similar services offer complete dinner kits with step-by-step instructions on dinner preparation. They consistently provide delicious and healthy restaurant quality meals in the 500-700 calorie range. 

Services like this fundamentally change our relationship with food including how we shop, cook and eat. They trend towards efficiency, nutrition and transparency by servicing customers desire to eat healthy, know where ingredients were sourced, while spending less time in the kitchen. 

This is currently a mostly untapped $200B TAM (50M working people * 2 meals/day * $8/target price per meal * 250 working days/year) where a number of startups are being funded. Companies in this space can be broadly categorized as

  1. Restaurant ordering and take out services like DoordashForkable (food delivered at work), GrubHub, Yelp Eat24 , UberEats
  2. Readymade food delivery services like Munchery, SpoonRocket, Sprig
  3. Dinner kit delivery services like Blue Apron, Chef’d, Chef day, Gobble, Hello Fresh, Home ChefPlated

Restaurant ordering and take out services

Restaurant ordering and take out services allow customers to order online and (in certain cases) deliver food. By creating a marketplace for restaurants and customers they streamline the ordering process by removing friction. This is beneficial to both parties, the restaurants have access a larger pool of customers, and the customers to a wider range of restaurants. This service enables the rise of take-out kitchens which focus solely on food prepared for delivery, without the overhead of running a restaurant. 

Readymade food delivery services

Readymade food delivery services allow fresh food to be prepared and delivered at fixed times every day. While this model is well suited for densely populated areas it is not easy to scale.  This is constrained by mass producing a fresh, multi-ingredient, multi process meal and delivering it to customers every single time. To scale this model, cooking might have to be outsourced and curated where it starts to resemble ordering and take out services.

Dinner kit delivery services

Dinner kit delivery services will not replace trips to the grocery store anytime soon. But by eliminating shopping and prepping for a meal they hit the sweet spot between cooking from scratch and ordering take out. This comes with the satisfaction of a healthy, delicious, home cooked meal.

Dinner kit services scale well and lends itself to consolidation, economies of scale and logistical optimization (by shipping in bulk). With Gobble, the cost of 6 meals is ~$70 ($12/meal), estimated shipping costs are $8 and packaging costs are $10 leaving $52 for food, labour and gross margins. Currently products are transferred to distribution centers in bulk and shipped to customers individually. There are opportunities for optimization by sourcing bulk foods locally and processing part of the food closer to the customers.

Subscription model

Both the dinner kit and readymade food delivery services are better suited to a subscription model than the restaurant ordering services in its current form. However there are opportunities to innovate in the restaurant ordering services. For example, a restaurant ordering services could facilitate ordering from 2 different restaurants and consolidate into a single delivery. A restaurant ordering service could create private, curated menus setting their own prices and having them fulfilled by restaurants, especially if they can provide a predictable supply of orders. Taking this one step further, they could offer a subscription service where users can order a fixed number of times a week for a predetermined price.


Companies like Whole foods with retail distribution centers and on-site food processing facilities have two significant advantages in offering dinner kits.

  1. Assembling the final product in store with locally sourced ingredients and centrally prepared sauces.
  2. Retail distribution centers eliminate the last mile distribution problem.

Then there are the big players. Amazon offers free one hour restaurant delivery in select regions through Amazon Prime Now; expect them to enter the dinner kit delivery market through AmazonFresh. With their massive sourcing and distribution network, they can operate efficiently at scale. Uber Eats recently entered the food delivery service, providing curated meals from local restaurants quickly.

In summary, this is a huge market with tremendous opportunities to disrupt and innovate. This is where many battles will be waged and winners prevail by offering a low-cost, high quality, frictionless service.


Cloudonomics - maximizing return on cloud investment

In this post, I address the question "Is my organization maximizing ROI from the cloud" exploring various options with practical examples.

Use reservations effectively

Cloud vendors like AWS and Azure provide substantial discounts for longer term commitments. For example AWS provides significant discounts on EC2 instances, DynamoDB, RDS, Elasticache for a longer commitment. Target maximizing coverage through reservations by reserving resources where projected usage equals or exceeds reservation discount percentage.

Here is a simple example illustrating savings using reserved instances over on-demand pricing using this technique. Lets assume there are a total of 200 instances used, 100 of which are used 24 hours, 50 for 18 hours and 50 more for 12 hours daily. Lets further assume that one year reservations provide 35% discount over on-demand pricing, monthly on-demand costs are $100 while reserved costs are $65.  In this case, the rule of thumb here is to reserve any capacity that is used for more than 65% of the time which is the break even in terms of reservations.

Cost savings through reservations

Instances/Costs On-demand costs $ Reserved costs $ To reserve Actual costs $ Savings $
(On-demand - Actual costs)
100 instances used 100% of the time 10,000 6,500 Yes 6,500 3,500
50 instances used 75% of the time 3,750 3,250 Yes 3,250 500
50 instances used 50% of the time 2,500 3,250 No 2,500 N.A
Total 16,250 N.A N.A 12,250 4,000

Simply reserving 150 instances results in savings of 24%. Keep in mind is that instance types change frequently and the benefits of reserving instances for 3 years is not as clear. However for managed services like Dynamo it is more economical to invest in 3 year reservations than 1 year as the customers are insulated from underlying hardware changes.

There are cloud service management platforms like CloudHealth Technologies which automate these processes to maximize ROI from the cloud.

Scaling through hardware and not optimizing enough

While the cloud is elastic and can scale with demand, costs can get out of hand quickly. It can encourage uneconomical behavior by using compute resources to solve problems rather than efficient engineering practices.

Too often, scaling problems are solved by adding hardware instead of an efficient design. An efficient design minimizes the amount of data transferred between different computing systems leading to lesser processing requirements resulting in cost savings.

The servers and databases become more efficient by processing smaller volume of data resulting in lower compute, memory and networking resource needs. Data transfer costs are reduced which can be passed on to the consumers.

Data compression can achieve the similar results. The CPU overhead to compress and uncompress is offset by gains in transferring lower amounts of data. 

Breaking down data transferred into smaller chunks involves a higher level of engineering effort. For example it is programmatically simpler to save an entire user profile when a single attribute has changed but is inefficient and expensive, especially when repeated. .

Use resources only when needed

Follow the business hours cost model where resources are active only when they are being used. This is usually 12 hours/day M-F,  60 of 168 hours a week which is 35.7% of the time. Resources for software development and testing are excellent examples for this type of usage.

Batch compute tasks, both scheduled and ad-hoc tasks run and release all resources when complete. A word of caution - on-demand compute capacity may not always be available so plan for variable schedules. 


When an application is containerized, it can be deployed across different hardware consistently. When new hardware is introduced the application can be benchmarked it and used if more efficient (new hardware usually is).

Containerization future proofs applications. As applications mature, the engineers who built them may not be around and technology will have evolved. Redeploying the application on newer hardware might get complicated. For example, there is no clear migration path for legacy applications running on AWS from PV AMi’s to the newer HVM AMI’s without knowing how the application is configured or deployed. There are applications running on older AWS m1 and m2 instance families which cannot be moved to newer instances without significant engineering effort. A containerized application will not have this problem resulting, in savings over the entire lifecycle of the application.

In addition containerization facilitates on-demand usage, supporting use cases like business hours cost model and batch computing. 

Use managed services

Managed services tend to be more elastic and costs correlate to usage. For example AWS DynamoDB follows an elastic pricing model where capacity can be changed as needed, multiple times a day. In addition these services are managed programmatically lending themselves to a devops culture requiring lower administrative overhead. Other administrative tasks like backing data up and setting up cross region replication for high availability are greatly simplified. So managed services improve productivity and need fewer personnel.

In summary, to get the maximum ROI from the cloud, use reservations effectively, optimize the applications to minimize data transfer, follow business hours cost model to schedule resources during working hours, containerize to future proof and to take advantage of newer, cheaper hardware and finally use managed services which are elastic and simpler to manage.


Here is a presentation on the same topic.

Hollywood is shifting north to Silicon Valley and Seattle

Big data has improved the quality of content created by new media SVOD corporations like Netflix and Amazon. By combining production and distribution, these companies have fundamentally altered the economics by eliminating the middleman distributor. Consumers are cutting the cord to cable providers now, movie theaters are at risk of being obsolete with rise of VR.

Big data has transformed content creation. Netflix has an extensive database of viewing patterns quantifying customer tastes to create better content. Amazon adopting a slightly different strategy by commissioning multiple pilots and letting viewers vote (by watching) which shows are funded further. These incumbents have a huge advantage over traditional media companies who without access to this rich data and feedback loops from their viewers are at a disadvantage when it comes to creating better products.

According to a study by ABN AMRO, about 26% of Hollywood movie studios' worldwide income came from box office ticket sales; 46% came from DVD sales to consumers; and 28% came from television (broadcast, cable, and pay-per-view). By combining production and distribution, the new media corporations eliminate the middleman and retain the majority of the revenues. Netflix has picked up shows like Arrested Development and Longmire which were no longer profitable on broadcast/cable. In addition, Netflix has financed first season shows like Marco Polo with a massive 90MM budget while Amazon’s new motoring shows with the Top Gear team for a very expensive at $250M over 3 seasons

These big budget flagship shows are strategic for acquiring users globally. Netflix has 45M subscribers in the US and 75M worldwide as of Q4 2015 producing revenues of $6.7 billion. Amazon (prime) is not far behind with 40M subscribes in the US. Their market sizes are limited by the number of broadband connections worldwide which is growing annually. Amazon might unbundle their SVOD services in markets where they do not have a significant presence otherwise.

If virtual reality lives up to its promise and provides a better movie watching experience, it will surpass watching movies on the big screen in the next 5-10 years. The main driver for VR will be economics; when a film is released, everyone will be able to download and watch it the same day accelerating monetization. 

In summary, the old media companies will be unable to compete with the new media companies. The next decade will see consolidation where traditional companies are acquired by the incumbents who with increased number of subscribers and revenue. VR will meet and then surpass current movie watching experiences leading to the decline of the movie theater. 

On-demand computing with AWS Lambda

Amazon introduced an event driven compute service, Lambda in Nov 2014, simplifying how applications are built and run. Lambda forces developers to be more modular by writing small, elegant functions instead of monolithic applications. Think micro-microservices.

But before using it as the computing platform for future applications, there is the following set of issues which prevent broader adoption across a wider variety of use cases.

  1. Expensive - Coarse pricing model in units of 100ms. For example requests that take 5ms to process are billed as one single transaction not utilizing the other 95ms. Fix this by billing for actual time utilized or if billing in 100ms increments, allow 20 such transactions to be processed in a unit of processing time.
  2. Statelessness - There is no guarantee of state between invocations. This is a good model for building applications, this is not for functions. Application contexts and database connection pools have to be reinitialized multiple times, which is inefficient.
  3. Primitive support for development, debugging and logging. 
  4. Inability to access resources behind VPC’s. This limits how Lambda interacts with other services and systems.

Lambda is the first step in towards moving to a fully elastic everything where where compute, memory, storage and network will be independently scalable and costs are tied to actual usage. Currently these are tightly coupled affecting flexibility needed to run modern applications. GP2 EBS volumes coupled with IOPS, simple but inflexible and uneconomical. In mature applications, the data size has grown needing larger volumes but usage has stabilized reducing the IOPS needed to handle current levels of usage. Migration to magnetic or S3 is not automatic and disruptive. As another example, in Lambda couples memory with compute, network and storage bandwidth; it is not possible to tune these resources to an actual use case. 

These problems will be addressed as Lambda continues to evolve; tools will get better and pricing models will become flexible.  For organizations that have not fully embraced the cloud yet, Lambda offers  an opportunity bypass AWS infrastructural services around instances and containers by starting directly with event driven computing. This is analogous to developing countries bypassing landlines in favor of mobile.